Choanal atresia is a malformation in which the nasal passages do not open onto the pharynx . It is relatively uncommon but important cause of nasal obstruction in children. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, diagnosis and management of choanal atresia. It includes a review of the available literature on the subject, particularly the surgical management and adjunct treatments such as nasal stents. We have also included a section on assessment questions with answers provided, to highlight certain key learning points.